The Hen Harrier in Victorian Nottinghamshire

The Hen Harrier is a bird of prey which is called in North America the ‘Northern Harrier’ or the ‘Marsh Hawk’. These days it is becoming an increasingly rare and endangered bird in England because of the activities of the large shooting estates. Hen Harriers are harmful to Red Grouse, the quarry species for the man with a £3000 shotgun, so, completely illegally, many gamekeepers kill Hen Harriers on sight. Prosecutions are extremely few and far between because effective evidence needs to be gathered in very remote places where trespassers are far from welcome:


In Great Britain we have the wild spaces for more than a thousand pairs of breeding Hen Harriers, but this illegal killing for commercial reasons has limited the number to fewer than ten pairs. There are those, myself included, who think that the law should be changed. Instead of trying to prosecute individuals (who are quite often disowned by the estate owners), the estates themselves should be brought to account. Any estate found guilty should have their enormous subsidies of taxpayers’ money withdrawn.

Interestingly enough, just after I wrote this article, a fine example of what happens to Hen Harriers in northern England came to light. It is totally typical of the contempt which the moneyed classes have for the ordinary person who lives his or her life not to accrue wealth by any means whatsoever, but instead to delight in the wonders of the natural world. And look too at what the police managed to do after other people had done more or less 99% of their job for them.

In Nottinghamshire, therefore, the Hen Harrier is not a particularly common bird. The male is very distinctive, but the female or the young bird, the so-called “ringtail” stands out a lot less:

hen harrier

In 1857 William Sterland recounted how, on an unrecorded date this year:

“I was walking past Lord Manver’s poultry yard at Perlethorpe, which adjoins Thoresby Park, when a ringtail came sailing over, evidently intent on plunder. Three times she soared around the large enclosure , which contains several hundred head of poultry, and although it is bounded by a high wall, and is surrounded by the dwellings of the gamekeepers and others, she was only deterred from carrying off a chicken by the presence of some of the men.”


In 1866 William Felkin spoke of birds of prey in general:

“On the whole, this noble tribe of birds is fast decreasing, and some species, if not yet extinct, soon will be, under the deadly warfare waged against them by trap and gun; and thus the finest ornament of English forest scenery will be for ever lost, for the paltry gain of the few head of game they might possibly destroy.”

How true that has turned out to be. The Hen Harrier is well on its way to extinction as a breeding bird in this country, and before their recovery in modern times, both Common Buzzard, Marsh Harrier and Osprey had been exterminated by gamekeepers from most of the country.


William Sterland wrote in his “Birds of Sherwood Forest”:

“…the blue hawk as the male is called, is not by any means uncommon ; and both male and female being considered, and I fear not unjustly, as very destructive to game, are visited, whenever opportunity offers, with condign punishment, and their once buoyant forms are seen nailed up in terrorem amongst others of their order, in grim companionship with stoats, weasels, polecats, and other vermin.”


Indeed, by the end of the nineteenth century, polecats themselves were extinct in England. And only the departure of all the gamekeepers to the trenches of the First World War prevented the extinction of the ordinary fox from many areas, especially in East Anglia.

Before 1907 Joseph Whitaker had seen only five or six Hen Harriers in thirty years of birdwatching.
He relates how:

“…one of the Hen Harriers I saw close to my home in Rainworth, was a male in full plumage, coloured pale lavender slate.”

hen peak

Whitaker took great pleasure in this, and other birds of the same species. Rather like William Felkin, he thought that:

“An odd harrier or two do very little harm, and the graceful flight, which I may describe as a cross between that of a Hawk and an Owl is always pleasant to see and adds immensely to the delight of the country walk.”


In his own copy of “The Birds of Nottinghamshire”, he has written of his own sighting:

“About  Xmas 1914 a Hen Harrier female flew over the road at the head of my pond within 20 yards. It had been seen earlier by Blackburn (keeper) today, March 19 it again passed over the same road, but at the top of mill by our gate it looked grand in a clear sun light. I am so glad it has escaped the keepers snare + hope it may like to lay a clutch of Cambridge blue eggs amongst the heather of the windswept Orkney Islands.”



Filed under Criminology, History, Nottingham, Science, Twitching, Wildlife and Nature

20 responses to “The Hen Harrier in Victorian Nottinghamshire

  1. Couldn’t agree more.

    Holding landowners responsible for staff actions, removing guns from offenders and stopping their grants are all ways of stopping the problem.

    I’ll stop now as I often rant on about this.

    Interesting to see the historical Nottinghamshire perspective too.

    • It would be a very great pity indeed if our grandchildren if our grandchildren were deprived of the sight of the Hen Harrier just because a few people want to shoot grouse. I have never understood why there are people who get pleasure in killing wildlife and are willing to carry it out as a “sport”. And all at the taxpayers’ expense!

  2. An important post, John. If only the right people would take note of it.

    • Thank you, Derrick. I would second that, but as it seems to have been Prince William and Prince Harry who actually shot a Hen Harrier years ago at Sandringham and escaped all punishment. I’m not holding my breath. The great irony is that if wild places are properly managed they can earn far more than mere grouse shooting, as has been proved by the Sea Eagles in Scotland and I suspect will be proved by beavers in England as they gradually increase in numbers.

  3. The soar of a bird of prey is an incredible sight. They are grand creatures.

    • Yes they are! And your countrymen have done a marvellous job to bring back the Bald Eagle and can also congratulate themselves on the way that the Osprey nests in really quite urban settings compared to Europe. And creatures like that can earn lots of dollars. Each wolf in the Yosemite pack apparently earns millions of dollars in tourist revenues every year.

  4. A good looking bird. I fail completely to understand why people want to shoot things, even clay pigeons!

    • I confess that I did watch the clay pigeon shooting in the London Olympics but that was because of the tension as a gold medal seemed to depend on every single shot. It’s the taking of life I can’t understand. If they kill a common or pest species and then eat it, as is the case with wood pigeons and doves, then fair enough, but just to shoot some animal and then proclaim it a major triumph is beyond my understanding too.

  5. The fact that such beautiful, graceful birds are shot renders me speechless. Beautiful pictures John, thank you.

  6. Another fine example of how the rich simply take, take, take. A beautiful example of Mother nature at her best and yet another that is in the verge of extinction because of man’s greed.

  7. An excellent report. I checked out the link. For such a crime a warning! What an irony!

  8. How sad when people don’t take care of a species.

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